How Psychologist Carl Jung Described Our Personality Types

Clinically Reviewed by Steven Melendy, PsyD. on January 27, 2020

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® assessment, which is the result of Isabel Briggs Myers’ insightful system of personality typing, can be traced back to the groundbreaking theories of psychoanalyst Carl Jung.  Amongst Jung’s prolific work in the arts and sciences, his seminal book, Psychological Types, presents the foundation for Briggs Myers' theory. 

The two theories are not exactly the same, however, and Jung’s work can be pretty esoteric in places. In fact, Isabel Myers started her own work on personality with the express aim of making Jung’s work more understandable and useful in everyday people's lives.  

Our Personal Journey Begins

According to Jung, every person is predisposed to be dominant in either Extraversion or Introversion, indicating where we direct our energy—outward, toward the external world, or inward, toward our own minds.  It’s a profound beginning. Whether our dominant or “general attitude type” is either E or I, it will influence pretty much everything else during the entire span of our personal growth. Our energy expression, E or I, influences the development of all other “functional types,” such as Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, and iNtuiting.

Jung’s 8 Personality Types

Jung formulated eight personality types, which are the basis for the Briggs Myers' 16 personalities.  The eight types are:

  • Extraverted Thinking
  • Introverted Thinking 
  • Extraverted Feeling 
  • Introverted Feeling 
  • Extraverted Sensation 
  • Introverted Sensation 
  • Extraverted Intuition
  • Introverted Intuition

You’ll notice the absence of Judging and Perceiving. Jung made no mention of these traits and they were added later in Myers and Briggs' system

According to Jung, we all have complex psychologies and there can never be a pure type. Jung never intended to label people. If we identify as an Extraverted Thinker (ET), for example, our less developed Introverted (I) or Feeling (F) side will still reside in our unconscious. Jung referred to these less developed traits as ‘repressed.’ He believed that our repressed traits will rise from time to time, perhaps in dreams, as we embark on our process of individuation. This is the process of becoming aware of yourself and achieving a sense of wholeness.

Extraverted and Introverted Thinking

When we describe the ET personality type, Jung would have us think of naturalist Charles Darwin.  After he received his education, Darwin catalogued the species living in the Galapagos Islands to develop his Theory of Evolution. Like Darwin, Extraverted Thinkers build their thinking upon ideas gleaned from education or tradition. This personality tends to do well in engineering, science or business.  In our society, this type is most widely validated because ET's utilize objective data and produce tangible results.

Often seen in leadership positions, ET's adhere to a personal formulaic approach.  If circumstances fall within their formula, it can only be right. Anything outside of it is quickly dismissed.  They can be great reformers when they maintain a level of flexibility. When an ET is too uncompromising in their formula, Jung says they can “develop into a grumbler, […] a self-righteous critic, who would like to impress both himself and others into one schema.”

Moving on to the IT personality type, a strong example would be Immanuel Kant who philosophized about education chiefly through culture. Sometimes labeled as headstrong, IT’s often find themselves misunderstood when they attempt to get a point across.  While they internally struggle to communicate their thoughts, they also may come off as haughty. They may be overcome with what we call today, analysis paralysis. 

Though wonderful learners, teaching can be difficult for an IT personality.  They would be more interested in understanding the subject matter than presenting it. 

Extraverted and Introverted Feeling

EF’s are likely to express their feelings in traditional ways proper to the situation or experience on hand.  EF’s are affable and accommodating people. According to Jung, when an EF inauthentically deviates from their genuine interest for social harmony, they’ll appear to be assuming an affectation or a false pose. Jung says, “No longer does it speak to the heart; it merely appeals to the senses, or –worse still— to the reason.”

In the case of an IF personality type, Jung characterizes them by the proverb, “Still waters run deep.”  IF types can be quiet and difficult to know.  They resemble the sensitive mimosa plant. The leaves of these plants shy away from touch or change to their environment. 

The IF type shares similarities with the IT personality—though it can be argued that IT personalities have an advantage with communication.  Their thoughts already exist in a reasoned format, whereas an IF must translate the internal sum of their ideas into something the listener would both understand and feel.  Jung believes they’re always “striving after an abstraction of abstractions.” 

Extraverted and Introverted Sensing

ES personality types value intense realism. Their perceptive functions are free from personal subjective feelings or experiences.  They attribute value according to the strength of their sensations of reality. According to Jung, ES personalities usually enjoy themselves and can be very charming people. Jung describes them as well dressed with a “a good table for his friends.”  To an ES, reality is the ideal.

Jung shows us the effect introversion has on our sensing function with landscape painters.  Artists with the IS personality type, given the same landscape and ability, would attempt to reproduce the setting faithfully.  However, their work would certainly differ in color and form. It would inevitably be influenced by their moods and experiences at an unconscious level.  IS personalities also tend to weave their current expressions with everything that once was and everything that could be.   

The IS type can also be hard to read and are notoriously difficult to judge.  This personality type doesn’t give much away on the outside. They can be great teachers while they share culture with others. IS types seem to exude the gift of inner understanding without simply recounting or relying on traditional methods or canons.     

Extraverted and Introverted iNtuiting

Since intuition is usually a function of the unconscious, it’s challenging to exactly pinpoint.  Jung describes the EN type as having an “attitude of expectation.” The EN personality is always on the lookout for new experiences and change, even if it’s to take apart what was only just built.  They’re continually on the lookout for new possibilities to satisfy their intuition.

EN’s are often very inspirational people and have a great capacity to learn about other’s abilities and enthusiastically direct them.  The risk to an EN is that they may not live the life they prescribe to others. An EN is apt to quit their “newly planted field, while others reap the harvest.”

Finally, IN personality types flow from “image to image, chasing after every possibility in the teeming womb of the unconscious, without establishing any connection between the phenomenon and himself.”  This resonates with me.  As an IN type, I conjure vivid, detailed scenes and change minor details.  It’s like tugging at a thread in a tapestry just to see its effect. 

According to Jung, if we’re artists, we can share the full spectrum of the “extraordinary, remote things.”  Or if we do not find adequate expression, we’re “frequently an unappreciated genius.”  As dreamers, we can be impulsive. 

Personality Type of the Ages

Jung’s work transcends personality, psychology and even science.  It encompasses humanities, culture, and the arts. Jung’s Psychological Types is full of references to literature and our history. 

He uses extraversion and introversion to broadly capture the essence of the classical and medieval periods.  According to our surviving legacy of classical art, we have the sense that the E attitude was the more valued energy expression.  With a study of sculpture or architecture, there is an emphasis on ideal physical outward form and aesthetics. Whereas, the medieval period, through reverence to subjective religious ideals, favored the I attitude.

In our day, both E’s and I’s leave their mark in history.  We allow arts and sciences to blend in our culture. From personality theory, we better understand our differences and commonalities.  From those, we see that each personality type has their role to play in our society. We share in the quest to fulfill the enormous promise of personal potential—becoming who we truly are.

What personality type do you think Carl Jung had? 

Marisa Dallas

Marisa Dallas is a freelance writer with two bachelors’ degrees in Biomedical Sciences and English & American Literature. As a creative idealist, INFJ, she is an imaginative world builder and enjoys writing fictional literary short stories. Marisa is working on her first novel. Reach out to her at

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About the Clinical Reviewer

Steven Melendy, PsyD., is a Clinical Psychologist who received his doctorate from The Wright Institute in Berkeley, California. He specializes in using evidence-based approaches in his work with individuals and groups. Steve has worked with diverse populations and in variety of a settings, from community clinics to SF General Hospital. He believes strongly in the importance of self-care, good friendships, and humor whenever possible.


Jena (not verified) says...

Great article! It's interesting reading these profiles and then recognizing how they were expanded into the MBTI to give a more complete and in-depth personality profile. 

Marisa Dallas says...

Hi Jena, thank you.  I find Carl Jung incredibly interesting, too.  His work inspires so many people in the arts and sciences.  He was undoubtably an introvert.  When Myers-Briggs added the final letter (Judging or Perceiving) to show how people order their outer worlds, I feel like it really captured the whole personality.  But more on that in my next article.  May I ask what most resonated with you?

Rick Ruppenthal says...

Love the article, thank you for sharing your thoughts. What resonated for me was this "According to Jung, if we’re artists, we can share the full spectrum of the “extraordinary, remote things.”  Or if we do not find adequate expression, we’re “frequently an unappreciated genius.”  As dreamers, we can be impulsive." As an INFP I can really sense when I am not in the creative flow. Most of what I do is unknown and I am learning the value of the gifts in the ET to change that. Jung to me is an INFP and also learned not to define himself by that alone.

Marisa Dallas says...

Hi Rick, thank you for your feedback.  I'm an INFJ and it's been a challenge for me to put myself out there, too.  I began with small things, such as what you did in commenting and sharing your thoughts.  I'm curious about your work and invite you to share it with me.  I also find Jung's work endlessly facininating.  He was not only a scientist but an artist as well.  He painted and I feel sure that some of the sentences in Psychological Types where written only because they were beautiful.

Rubi (not verified) says...

INFP doesn't have IN function in it's system, tho. Please correct me if I'm mistakes.

I believe INFP is an IF with (repressed) EN, not IN.

Jen Hanson (not verified) says...

 Thank you for this very thought provoking article, Marisa. It has been timely in my recent journey of gaining self knowledge - I think precipitated by my baby now becoming a more independent toddler (more time to think!).

The description of IN really resonated with me - I'm an INFJ and just yesterday worked out that, on the Enneagram, I'm a Type 4 ("The Artist/Individualist") with a social variant. All of this is aligning nicely and helping me better understand (and accept) myself, the way I interact with the world, and what I can do to grow as a person. I think returning to old and exploring new creative outlets will be a must for me. 

Thanks again. 

Marisa Dallas says...

Hello Jen, thank you for sharing.  It can be tough to prioritize your own creativity but I'm glad that you have something old to return to and something new to reach for.  When I had my baby, I kept my creative self burning as an ember until I was able to breathe it back to life again.  Parenting is also a creative process.  As it happens, I have a library copy of Julia Cameron's The Artist Way for Parents on my desk as I write you.  I wish you all the best in your self discovery.  

Terry Freeman (not verified) says...

Great article.  I am an INFJ also.

This is me: 

"Their thoughts already exist in a reasoned format, whereas an IF must translate the internal sum of their ideas into something the listener would both understand and feel."

“....image to image, chasing after every possibility in the teeming womb of the unconscious, without establishing any connection between the phenomenon and himself.”

And like you, I conjure up the vivid, detailed scenes.  And that sometimes drives me nuts!

Marisa Dallas says...

Thank you, Terry!  I'm in awe of what our minds are capable of.

Magdalena Z (not verified) says...


Great article! I was wondering if Carl Jung ever gave any justification to why people have different personlity types?

Devin (not verified) says...

Hey - as an INFP/Eight I have a lot of frustration at being misunderstood. I've always been an achiever at what I set out to accomplish (education, work) but relating to others hasn't been as effective if I don't understand someone else through the process of empathy. I've met some challenging situations working in a field with many ENTJ types, so I don't really fit in professionally. I've found through opening up and being vulnerable with well-chosen people can allow me to better understand social dynamics and feel less resentment, jealousy, and self-doubt. Thanks for your post - I definitely want to seek out the work of Jung to better understand my own place and role in life. 

Magdaly Genao (not verified) says...

I think Jung was an infj!

MagnusFB (not verified) says...

Introverted Thinker

Nisrina (not verified) says...

Jung was probably an INTJ..

MagnusFB (not verified) says...

I have some comments regarding Introverted Sensation:


"It would inevitably be influenced by their moods and experiences at an unconscious level"


Just to be clear: Si is not personal. It's not about their moods or experiences. It is simply a psychic impression evoked by the environment. They experience sensations deeper, in a more "psychic" or genuine way. It's like the sensation is colored by the unconscious. But that doesn't mean that it's personal.


"IS personalities also tend to weave their current expressions with everything that once was and everything that could be. "


Jung doesn't really say this though. He uses it as a figure of speach to describe the quality of the sensation. It's something psychic in quality, detached from the present moment, or detached from the objective sensation.

One has to be careful when citing Jung, because there are already lots of misunderstandings. MBTI misunderstood Introverted Sensation and thought that it has something to do with comparing with the past. That's not correct.


"They can be great teachers while they share culture with others. "


Jung doesn't say this. And they are usually not very good teachers. They can be artists if they find a way to express themselves, but often they don't so they just remain enigmas and their experiences remain on the inside.


Share your thoughts


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