Here’s How Intuitive Feelers Approach Their Careers, According to New Research

Clinically Reviewed by Steven Melendy, PsyD. on April 28, 2019

What do an ENFP, INFP, ENFJ and INFJ have in common? According to Keirsey, they’re all Idealists. Sure, they each have their own unique styles, but deep down, they share the same core motivations: the pursuit of authentic self-expression, and the opportunity to inspire others to do the same.       

Though Idealists only make up approximately 15% of the population, I can’t help but feel that they’re overrepresented in career coaching. I’ve done hundreds of personality type interpretations over the years, and I’m never surprised to see an Intuitive Feeling result. The course I teach for undecided first-year students is filled with eager, and sometimes daunted, Idealists trying to choose a major and career that authentically reflects their interests. They are not only determined to find the ideal path, but they come ready to fully engage with the process. The future is mine to create, they seem to say, and I’m going to do it right.           

Though the word “Idealist” implies a dreamy romantic, often wandering and rarely satisfied, Keirsey provides a clear picture of what we can expect from Intuitive Feeling types. They are imaginative, relationship-oriented, enthusiastic and generous. They bring empathy and diplomacy to their work and relationships, along with high ethical standards. They believe in harmony, and often make decisions based on intuition and faith, if not spiritual certainty. Most importantly, they are champions of authenticity and the power of human potential.

This is a compelling profile, and though it matches my experience working with Idealists, I wondered to what extent the students I work with would corroborate Keirsey’s ideas.

The Research

In the fall of 2018, I taught a mandatory course to support first-year University of Cincinnati students as they prepared to choose a career path. I collected information throughout the semester about 116 of these students’ personality types, strengths and beliefs about their careers. In order to learn more about those who identified as ENFPs, INFPs, ENFJs or INFJs (Idealists), I compared these responses to the responses of students who did not identify as Idealists; in other words, everyone else.

As I dug through the data, I began to see how Idealists’ responses diverged along personality lines. The patterns were subtle, but they came together to produce a few powerful conclusions.

Idealists Are All About Potential, and They Know We’re In This Together

I asked students to report their results on a popular strengths assessment called CliftonStrengths, which provides each user with their top 5 individual strengths, selected from a list of 34. This list includes strengths related to productivity, strategic thinking, relationship-building and influencing others, and the assessment itself has more than 20 million users worldwide. I compared Idealist students’ strengths to the rest of the sample.

The major standout was the strength Developer, the ability to recognize the potential in people and to challenge them to grow and pursue success. If that sounds like something right out of Keirsey’s description, that’s because it is. Working with people to develop their potential is the Idealist trademark. Keirsey points out that many are drawn to careers in teaching, counseling, social services and the ministry for this very reason. This is consistent with my experience working with Idealist students. I’ve rarely met one who didn’t express interest in some or all of these fields.

In my sample of student strengths, Idealist students were nearly 8 times more likely to have the Developer strength in their top five. This was by far the most significant difference in the data. It was so pronounced, I checked the numbers three times. 6.2% of Idealist students had the developer strength in their top five, compared to only 0.8% of the rest of the sample.

Idealists were slightly more likely to have a number of other predictable strengths, such as Empathy, Individualization, Harmony, and Ideation. This is consistent with Keirsey’s depiction of Idealists as warm, sensitive, imaginative and concerned with keeping the peace and building consensus.

The second most powerful difference in Idealist students’ results was the significant presence of a strength called Connectedness. This is the tendency to believe that things happen for a reason and that we are all connected by the human experience. Idealists were 3.5 times more likely to have the strength of Connectedness (2.8% compared to 0.8%). This sensitivity to the bigger picture likely reinforces Idealists’ commitment to helping others. If we are all connected, then supporting each other contributes to our collective wellbeing.

Idealists were four time less likely to have the strength Competition in their top five, reinforcing this preference for collaboration over competition.

Idealists Crave Meaningful (and Often Creative) Work

Not only was Connectedness apparent in Idealist students’ strengths, they were more likely to have a strength called Belief. CliftonStrengths says this about users who possess Belief: “…success is more than money and prestige…Your work must be meaningful. It must matter to you.” Idealists may be in search of a meaningful cause to inspire them above and beyond work for its own sake, or strictly for the sake of compensation.

You may therefore wonder if Idealists are more likely to pursue careers in the arts or in public service since these fields often provide appealing social and creative rewards. I looked at students’ intended career paths to see if this was true. The results were mixed. Idealist students were much more likely to indicate interest in creative careers. Nearly a third of Idealist students fell into this category (30%), more than twice the percentage of non-Idealist students interested in these careers (12%).

As for careers in public service, Idealists were about as likely as non-Idealists to indicate interest. My guess is that the specific roles and types of organizations Idealists find themselves in may differ overtime, according to their particular strengths. In their first year of college, with limited or no career experience, these students may not yet know where their careers will ultimately take them.

Interestingly, Idealists were less likely to express interest in criminal justice careers (7%) compared with the rest (12%). This may relate to my earlier finding, the Idealist students’ tendency to have strengths like Developer and Connectedness. They might be inclined to avoid (or simply take less interest in) occupations perceived to be punitive or conflictual. Remember that Idealists as a group are high in empathy and the need for harmony, and tend to believe in the potential for an individual to grow and change.

Idealists Get Excited about Possibility, and Fear Uncertainty Like Everyone Else

When asked what most excites them about their future careers, Idealist students looked a lot like the others. Everyone mentioned things like the opportunity to travel, to help people and make the world a better place, to obtain more freedom and find their passions. In spite of these similarities, there were subtle differences in student responses.

In general, Idealist students were less specific in their answers, often using open and occasionally vague language to describe their hopes. More Idealist students reported that the very openness of their future, the fact that they had options, excited them more than anything else (7%). This happened less frequently (2%) in the rest of the sample.

Though these numbers are small, they were supported by the fact that more Idealist students (8%) than non-Idealist students (4%) answered “I don’t know” when asked about their career plans. They seemed unwilling or unable to choose a direction, whether because they find possibility exciting, or because, as Keirsey might suggest, they want to chart an authentic, meaningful path, and are not yet prepared to do so.

Alright, so we know what Idealists are excited about. But what about their fears? This one got complicated. Both Idealists and everyone else reported a wide range of fears about their careers. The most common responses were things like struggling in a competitive field, not making enough money, the uncertainty of the future, feeling trapped and not enjoying the work itself.

I compared the percentages of both groups, looking at how likely Idealists were to mention a fear of being trapped or a fear of uncertainty. About 6% of Idealist students were afraid of being trapped, and another 21% were afraid of uncertainty. These percentages were 2% and 17%, respectively, for non-Idealists. Given Idealists’ excitement about possibility, it makes sense that these students were more concerned about feeling trapped. And yet, they were equally, if not more, afraid of uncertainty than the rest.

This paradox may partially explain why Idealists are so often motivated to seek career guidance, and why they ultimately make such powerful guides themselves. They can relate to fears about the future, and use their inherent talents for empathizing, developing and ideating, to support others in making authentic decisions.

Idealists Are Inspired by the Notion of an Authentic Call to Serve the World

As our final assessment, I asked students to familiarize themselves with the work of three career satisfaction gurus: Parker Palmer, a prolific scholar, activist and educator who speaks about the spiritual importance of pursuing an authentic life of service to the world; Cal Newport, a critic of the phrase “find your passion,” who encourages us to exchange rare and valuable skills for extraordinary financial and personal rewards; and Emilie Wapnick, an enthusiastic advocate for pursuing multiple career paths based on personal interests. Each of these thinkers represents a unique and compelling approach to career, and each drew their share of student support.

Across the board, Emilie Wapnick’s approach resonated most with students. 65% of  Idealist students and 63% of non-Idealist students favored Wapnick. As for the rest of the class, Idealists were more likely to choose Parker Palmer’s approach (20%) over Cal Newport’s (15%). Non-Idealist students did the reverse; Newport pulled ahead by 6% (a 22% share), compared with Palmer (at 16%).

Idealist students connected more powerfully with Palmer, and had plenty to say about his philosophy. In the words of one Idealist student:

“In reading Parker Palmer’s Let Your Life Speak: Listening for the Voice of Vocation, I have found a message that explains how I feel about my future…It took me hitting rock bottom with both my mental and physical health to realize what to do with my life. I would rather be happy, helping people and making a difference in this world than wasting my life doing something that didn’t matter.”

This neatly captures what we know about Idealist students, and underscores the value of a relatable framework to validate their worldview. These students respond enthusiastically to guides who share and live out their values.

Final Thoughts

While this was only a quick assessment of college students, these results indicate that Idealists are as complex and diverse a group as any other. They do, however, consistently demonstrate a unique combination of values and talents.

As an Idealist myself, I would love to see more investigation into our personal and professional journeys, so that we can better understand how our eclectic group satisfies the need for authentic and purposeful lives.

Melanie B

Melanie Buford is a writer and professor of career education. She’s an INFJ who loves personality theory and working with people who want their lives on the outside to match what’s inside. You can follow her on Twitter @melanievbuford or find her at

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About the Clinical Reviewer

Steven Melendy, PsyD., is a Clinical Psychologist who received his doctorate from The Wright Institute in Berkeley, California. He specializes in using evidence-based approaches in his work with individuals and groups. Steve has worked with diverse populations and in variety of a settings, from community clinics to SF General Hospital. He believes strongly in the importance of self-care, good friendships, and humor whenever possible.


Christopher Mathew (not verified) says...

Hi Melanie! I'm looking to become either a high school history teacher or professor. I'm an INFJ. Would you happen to have any advice to help me decide? What's the job market for professors like?

Melanie B (not verified) says...

Hi Christopher - those are pretty different roles!  I'd check this out for the basics:

The market for professors varies depending on your field.  For the humanities and social sciences, it's changing pretty quickly and is therefore a bit tough.  Fewer and less consistent openings than for high school history teachers.  I would think about what kind of educational path you're up for and speak to a few people in both careers to narrow down.

Sheray Damon (not verified) says...

Good day

Reading this entire article, I found myself nodding and agreeing to every single thing and I mean literally everything that was shared about an Idealist. 

I am currently in a job of receptionist and have been in this position for over 10 years. I have always wondered if this was meant for me to be in such a position of almost 2 decades of my life, I love to serve others, treat them the way I would want to be treated and to make anyone's day be it the "big boss" or our tea lady, that was my greatest joy and I thrive off it every single day. Being a wife and a mom is the most rewarding task I would do any day. To my astonishing surprise, when I gave birth to my miracle daughter 2 years ago, something triggered. A childhood memory, my dream of oneday becoming a teacher. As the years passed, life happened and that dream somehow got lost within life happening. I moved 2 cities, my parents got divorced after 25 years of marriage and I just went through the motion of what was meant to be. 

About a few weeks ago I had an engineer share something very interesting. It was a course in Robotics which she definitely was not interested in as she loves renewable energy and that gives her satifaction too of having a meaningful career. She then went on and said Sheray, find something you love you doing and focus on that. 

It was then that I had soon realised, what am I doing in the position for almost 2 decades and yes I was gaining some sort of satifaction in being of service to others as my job but it is not as meaningful and fullfilling as what an actual career doing it would be. Since, I have been doing research on Child Care Psychology and I am drawn to children and the psychological well being and moulding them into being a success in the society we are faced with today. Equip them with all that is necessary to live a well balanced fullfilled life, and have them excel in the things money cannot buy. Ultimately they are the future and what better joy and satisfaction one would gain from making a difference in a young child's life. 

Perhaps I went a bit off topic but from my experience and realisation a few weeks ago, its never too late to fullfill your true purpose in life. 

Do what you love and youll never have to work another day in your life...


Paul Connors (not verified) says...

Yep! I am an INFP. This article certainly spoke to me. Here I am at 62, after having a "successful" career as a Chef, (lots of accolades, little $), I am looking to be a career counselor, or teacher, or work in a non-profit helping those in need. 


Toheera (not verified) says...

I'm a 40 year old INFJ,HSP,Heyoke,first born girl of my family.The article is so accurate and very detailed.I really enjoyed reading it.Thanx

Jillian (not verified) says...

Thank you Melanie for such an insightful article! I’m an INFP and sculpture artist who has always been curious how to earn a living helping others. I found this article very helpful! 

Jacques Rigaut (not verified) says...

I think there are a lot of miserable intuitive feelers who, confronted with a job market that holds little in the way of meaningful, creative work in which one can be truly authentic, simply go for the highest paying job they can (somewhat) tolerate. However, a review of recent employee engagement surveys might suggest this phenomenon is not restricted to intuitive feelers only!

LUkas (not verified) says...







Emily - INFJ (not verified) says...

I currently work as an administrator where we help people maximize their hard earned money, with the usual admin duties but I am also given autonomy on areas where there is need for improvement - internal processes and client services.  I have worked in non-profit sector and couselling services but I found the lifestyle too demanding for a healthy family life - they cannot coexist at this time.  I often check-in with myself about if I am doing what is best for me and I am.  I admit though, that I find my mind drifting to whether I "should" be contributing to the world in a "bigger" way.  Who knows maybe when the kids are all grown up I may go back to some form of counselling or advisory services...

briannah smith (not verified) says...

i feel alone in this world . and that i am all i gand i be treated different . 

Felicia Karina (not verified) says...

I know what you’re going through, but remind yourself there are others like you that feel the same.. continue connecting with other idealists.. and stay beautifully lost until you fill that void.. it will happen you can’t stop believing in making a difference💙

Erinbliss333 says...

Will I ever find a job that I can stick with.....INFP.....


Felicia Karina (not verified) says...

Hi Erin! INFP here💙 How are you since posting..? Any changes or hope for your INFP sister here..? I realize this post is 3 years old.. just now discovering this blog..

Scott Elliott (not verified) says...

Fascinating article. A full-throated idealist from a young age, I told my parents that I was going to teach elementary school while I was still in* elementary school. At 11 years old, I accompanied my father on a business trip to DC. My father enjoys politics almost as much as I do, so we decided to attend a Senate Armed Services Committee hearing the day before we returned to our hometown in East Tennessee. As the giant mahogany doors swung upon, I felt a lump form in my throat. Sitting at the dais were American giants such as Ted Kennedy, John McCain, Robert Byrd, and many others. But when Senator Kennedy and I locked eyes as I settled into my seat, I knew in that moment - beyond a shadow of a doubt - that I was destined for a life of public service. Seven years later, I honored my calling by only applying to universities in the DC metropoitan region. While studying history at the University of Maryland, I was accepted into the White House Internship Program. After opening my acceptance letter, I vividly recall telling myself "Rise to the occasion." I am an avowed spiritualist and believe that a higher power infused me with the confidence that I needed to excel in the most high-pressure office building on earth, where I would be compared to uncommonly brilliant students attending Ivy League universities.

I was the only member of my internship class to have been raised in the mountains of rural Appalachia. With my pronunced Southern accent and a peculiar background, I sensed many of my peers dismissing me as a "diversity hire" whose upbrining would inevitably limit my potential in the wild world of Washington politics. They were mistaken.

I have yet to encounter an idealist who shares my competitive drive. When I overheard several peers mocking my accent, I began leveraging my emotional intelligence to form strong bonds with other interns, their supervisors, and staffers. I have never been the smartest guy in the room, and the same was true at the White House. I am, however, the warmest guy in the room, capable of forming connections with just about anyone. An extrovert's extrovert. Nothing lifts my spirits quite like the rhythm of authentic social interaction, so I enjoyed meeting scores of gifted, interesting staffers throughout the building. 

This "charm offensive" was remarkably successful. My personal and professional networks were larger than ever and I befriended several senior staffers. After learning that I had been selected to introduce First Lady Michelle Obama at a professional development event, I realized that people skills - not IQ points - are the most valuable commodity in politics.

Seven years have passed since I last exited the West Wing. After spending several years working in Maryland politics and at the DNC, I founded a well-known political fundraising firm. My success is due, in part, to my hard work and perseverance, but most of the credit belongs to the friends I met during my White House Internship. The majority of my clients are referred to me by these folks. I make certain to return the favor whenever possibe. 

Since my chance encounter with Senator Kennedy eighteen years ago, I have yet to experience even the slightest regret about working in politics and public service. I know that my work supports leaders who share my values and worldview, and that is motivation enough to endure even the most challenging crises. In July 2016, I was the target of a Russian cyberattack that stole over 3,000 of my DNC emails, all of which were published on Wikileaks, where they remain to this day. Nevertheless, the attack strengthened my resolve to continue working in politics with greater fervor than ever before. I am no different from any other ENFJ. My desire to affect positive change in the world is central to my identity. That will never change. My sincerest thanks to Mr. Putin for steeling my spine and thickening my skin four years ago. 

Jack Marla (not verified) says...

I am myself an ENFJ and there are two significant facts in the text:

1) There is only about a rate of 15% of intuitive feelers in the population,
2) Intuitive feelers are very much overrepresented in career coaching.

Both facts originate from the reasons that all the above mentioned attitudes and preferences of intuitive feelers are a big weakness in the today's world. The world drastically changed towards a S-J dominated system in the last 200 years. You can observe this in terms of education, job markets and even (feeler-like fields) art and religion (!) ... everything has to be documented, there are laws and orders, most approach have to be done in textbook manner etc.

In this system, the mentioned strengths of intuitive feelers become vulnerable weaknesses, i.e. too much cooperation on the job will lead to getting spoiled and being pushed around OR being too authentic will lead to conflicted within the nowadays mostly standard-dominated groups (i.e. education).

In consequence, detail-oriented and (more important) compliant personality types (S-J types) dominate the organizational world like nobody else. They reign a once captured system from top-to-bottom and look strongly for like-minded subordinates ('leadership exchange theory') and simultaneously pushing out non-fitting individuals ('cultural fit'). I think esp. feelers should pay more attention to the relational root cause analysis of MBTI.

Felicia Karina (not verified) says...

I completely agree with everything you said..! 

Felicia Karina (not verified) says...

INFP here, I am recently divorced (12yr marriage with 2 children) I feel lost and can’t stand the hopeless feeling of not knowing what to do with my life. I have always wanted to do something that “matters” since I was a child. Having been in an abusive relationship for so long, I feel more than ever I need to help others, victims specifically, in any way.. would be so fulfilling. I strongly feel and believe that what I’ve been through had to be for “something”, it can’t be for “nothing”.

If I can go back I’d become a forensic pathologist (helping solve violent crimes) or child psychologist (helping detect early characteristics of personality disorders, or helping children heal from trauma). At 37, at times I feel like it’s too late and at times I feel like I rather die trying to achieve this desire to do something that makes a difference than die having done nothing at all to impact the lives of others. 

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