Mining and geological engineers held about 7,500 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of mining and geological engineers were as follows:
|Metal ore mining||14|
|Oil and gas extraction||6|
Many work where mining operations are located, such as mineral mines or sand-and-gravel quarries, in remote areas or near cities and towns. Others work in offices or onsite for oil and gas extraction firms or engineering services firms.
Most mining and geological engineers work full time and some work more than 40 hours a week. The remoteness of some mining locations gives rise to variable schedules and weeks during which they work more hours than usual.
Mining and geological engineers, including a mining safety engineers, typically need a bachelor’s degree in engineering to enter the occupation.
High school students interested in studying mining or geological engineering should take classes in math and science.
College students typically get a degree in an engineering field. Because relatively few schools offer programs in mining engineering or geological engineering, a degree in civil or environmental engineering or geoscience is often acceptable. Bachelor’s degree programs in mining engineering typically include courses in geology, thermodynamics, and mine design and safety. Bachelor’s degree programs in geological engineering typically include courses in geology, chemistry, and fluid mechanics. Both types of programs also include laboratory and field work, along with academic study.
Employers may prefer to hire mining and geological engineering candidates who have graduated from a program accredited by a professional association such as ABET.
Master’s degree programs in mining and geological engineering typically are 2-year programs and include coursework in specialized subjects, such as mineral resource development and mining regulations. Some programs require a written thesis for graduation.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Licensure is not required for entry-level positions as a mining or geological engineer. A Professional Engineering (PE) license, which allows for higher levels of leadership and independence, can be acquired later in one’s career. Licensed engineers are called professional engineers (PEs). A PE can oversee the work of other engineers, sign off on projects, and provide services directly to the public. State licensure generally requires
- A degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program
- A passing score on the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam
- Relevant work experience, typically at least 4 years
- A passing score on the Professional Engineering (PE) exam
The initial FE exam can be taken after one earns a bachelor’s degree. Engineers who pass this exam are commonly called engineers in training (EITs) or engineer interns (EIs). After meeting work experience requirements, EITs and EIs can take the second exam, called the Principles and Practice of Engineering.
In several states, engineers must earn continuing education credits to keep their licenses. Most states recognize licenses from other states, provided that licensure requirements in the other states meet or exceed the first state’s own requirements.
New mining and geological engineers usually work under the supervision of experienced engineers. In large companies, new engineers also may receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As engineers gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects and they are given greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions.
Engineers may advance to become technical specialists or supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial or sales jobs. In sales, an engineering background enables them to discuss a product's technical aspects and to assist in product planning, installation, and use. For more information, see the profiles on architectural and engineering managers and sales engineers.
Mining and geological engineers typically have an interest in the Building, Thinking and Persuading interest areas, according to the Holland Code framework. The Building interest area indicates a focus on working with tools and machines, and making or fixing practical things. The Thinking interest area indicates a focus on researching, investigating, and increasing the understanding of natural laws. The Persuading interest area indicates a focus on influencing, motivating, and selling to other people.
If you are not sure whether you have a Building or Thinking or Persuading interest which might fit with a career as a mining and geological engineer, you can take a career test to measure your interests.
Mining and geological engineers should also possess the following specific qualities:
Analytical skills. Mining and geological engineers must consider the wider implications of their immediate work to plan for environmental reclamation. They must be able to consider several competing, but interconnected, issues at the same time.
Decision-making skills. These engineers perform work that can affect not only companies’ profits but also miners’ lives. The ability to anticipate problems and deal with them immediately is crucial.
Logical-thinking skills. In planning mines’ operations, mineral processing, and environmental reclamation, these engineers have to be able to put work plans into a coherent, logical sequence.
Math skills. Mining and geological engineers use the principals of calculus, trigonometry, and other advanced topics in math for analysis, design, and troubleshooting in their work.
Problem-solving skills. Mining and geological engineers must explore for mines, plan the operations of mines, work out the mineral processing, and design environmental reclamation projects. These are all complex projects requiring an ability to identify and work toward goals, while solving problems along the way.
Writing skills. Mining and geological engineers must prepare reports and instructions for other workers. Therefore, they must be able to write clearly so that others can easily understand their thoughts and plans.
The median annual wage for mining and geological engineers was $97,090 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,690, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $162,720.
In May 2021, the median annual wages for mining and geological engineers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
|Oil and gas extraction||$131,020|
|Metal ore mining||95,300|
Most mining and geological engineers work full time and some work more than 40 hours a week. The remoteness of some mining locations gives rise to variable schedules and weeks during which they work more than usual.
Employment of mining and geological engineers is projected to grow 2 percent from 2021 to 2031, slower than the average for all occupations.
Despite limited employment growth, about 500 openings for mining and geological engineers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
Employment growth for mining and geological engineers will depend upon demand for coal, metals, and minerals. These resources are used in many products, from construction materials and cars to cell phones and computers. As companies look for ways to reduce costs, they are expected to contract out more exploration, design, and production activities.
For more information about mining and geological engineers, visit
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration
For information about general engineering education and career resources, visit
American Society for Engineering Education
Technology Student Association
For more information about licensure as a mining or geological engineer, visit
National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
National Society of Professional Engineers
For information about accredited engineering programs, visit