Genetic counselors assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects. They provide information and advice to other healthcare providers, or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.


Genetic counselors typically do the following:

  • Analyze genetic information to identify patients or families at risk for specific disorders and syndromes
  • Write detailed consultation reports to provide information on complex genetic concepts for patients or referring physicians
  • Discuss testing options and the associated risks, benefits, and limitations with patients and families
  • Interview patients to obtain comprehensive medical histories and document the findings
  • Interpret laboratory results and communicate findings to patients or physicians
  • Counsel patients and family members by providing information, education, or reassurance regarding genetic risks and inherited conditions
  • Determine patient treatment plans by reviewing laboratory work, literature, and patient histories
  • Participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in genetics and genomics

Genetic counselors identify specific genetic disorders or syndromes through the study of genetics. A genetic disorder or syndrome is inherited. For parents who are expecting children, counselors use genetics to predict whether a baby is likely to have hereditary disorders, such as Down syndrome and cystic fibrosis, among others. Genetic counselors can also test whether an adult is likely to develop chronic disease, or cancer. Counselors identify these conditions by studying patients’ genes through DNA testing. Counselors often perform the lab tests themselves, although sometimes they have medical laboratory technologists perform the tests, which they then interpret and use for counseling. They share this information with other health professionals, such as physicians, and with patients and their families. For more information, see the profiles on medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians and physicians and surgeons.

According to a 2012 survey from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, approximately two-thirds of genetic counselors work in traditional areas of genetic counseling: prenatal, cancer, and pediatric. The survey noted that the number of specialized fields for genetic counselors has increased. More genetic counselors are specializing in fields such as cardiovascular health, genomic medicine, neuropsychiatric genetics, and assisted reproductive technologies.

Work Environment

Genetic counselors held about 2,100 jobs in 2012. Genetic counselors work in university medical centers, private and public hospitals, physicians’ offices, and diagnostic laboratories. They work with families, patients, and other medical professionals.

Work schedules

Most genetic counselors work full time and have a standard work schedule.

Education and Training

Genetic counselors typically need at least a master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics. Although most genetic counselors have a master’s degree, some earn a Ph.D.


Genetic counselors typically need at least a master’s degree in genetic counseling or genetics, and some earn a Ph.D.

Coursework in genetic counseling includes public health, epidemiology, psychology, and developmental biology. Classes emphasize genetics, public health, and patient empathy. Advanced courses focus on clinical observations, review of previous genetic research, and health communication strategies.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

The American Board of Genetic Counseling provides certification for genetic counselors. To become certified, a student must first complete a master’s degree program that is certified by the board. There are currently 31 certified programs in the United States. Students then must pass a comprehensive exam and continue to accrue continuing education units throughout their careers. Some states currently require a license in genetic counseling, and other states have pending legislation for licensure. Certification is typically needed to get a license.

Important Qualities

Compassion. Patients seek advice on family care or serious illness, so genetic counselors must be sensitive and compassionate when communicating their findings.

Critical-thinking skills. Genetic counselors analyze laboratory findings to determine how best to advise a patient or family. They use their applied knowledge of genetics to assess inherited risks properly.

Decision-making skills. Genetic counselors must use their expertise and experience to determine how to disseminate their findings properly to their patients.

Speaking skills. Genetic counselors must communicate complex findings so that their patients can understand the magnitude of a health problem.


The median annual wage for genetic counselors was $56,800 in May 2012. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,540, and the top 10 percent earned more than $85,790.

In May 2012, the median annual wages for genetic counselors in the top four industries in which these counselors worked were as follows:

Specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse)
hospitals; private
General medical and surgical hospitals; local 63,590
Colleges, universities, and professional
schools; state
Offices of physicians 47,790

Most genetic counselors work full time and have a standard work schedule.

Job Outlook

Employment of genetic counselors is projected to grow 41 percent from 2012 to 2022, much faster than the average for all occupations. However, because it is a small occupation, the fast growth will result in only about 900 new jobs over the 10-year period. Ongoing technological innovations, including lab tests and developments in genomics, are giving counselors the opportunities to conduct more types of analyses. Cancer genomics, for example, can determine a patient’s risk for specific types of cancer. The number and types of tests that genetic counselors can administer and interpret has increased over the past few years.

Most growth over the next 10 years for genetic counselors is expected to be in hospitals.

Job Prospects

Genetic counselors can generally expect favorable job prospects. Ongoing innovations in genetic testing are likely to create demand for certified genetic counselors.

For More Information

For information about genetic counselors, certification, and schools offering education in genetic counseling, visit

American Board of Genetic Counseling

For more information about genetic counseling career requirements and developments in genetics, including licensure, visit

National Society of Genetic Counselors

For information about accreditation, and schools offering education in genetic counseling, visit

Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2014–2015 Occupational Outlook Handbook,


Kim, Da Hyung says...

Why do people find genetic counselors..?
I mean, most people know their hereditary disease because other adults in their family know about it, and tell their children about it. Unless it's a special case, why would people actually need help from a genetic counselor?

Jade Bartolo (not verified) says...

Genetic counsellors are there to provide such individuals with psychological support when planning a family, and to ensure they know of all the options available to them. In today's day and age there are procedures which can ensure that one's children won't suffer from the familial genetic condition, and such options need to be discussed with a professional before being opted for.

Makenzie Granzin (not verified) says...

Speaking personally, my mother sought a genetic counselor while pregnant because she was an at-risk mother. She was 39 when she became pregnant and due to past miscarriages, she looked for a genetic counselor to test her fetus to make sure there wouldn't be any complications with carrying the baby to term. I understand this might be a special case, but mothers who are simply concerned with their pregnancy would seek a genetic counselor specializing in prenatal care. 

Pratik Kelekar (not verified) says...

Genetic testing can sometimes help you learn more about your health. There are several types of genetic tests that you can get at different stages of your life. It is important to think about what these tests can and can not tell you before you make decisions. Reimbursement for genetic testing · Predictive. The GeneticHealing test uses qualitative genotyping to detect clinically relevant variants in adult salivary genomic DNA collected with an FDA-approved collection device (Oragene DX Model OGD-500.001) to report genetic health risks and to interpret and report the carrier status. Visit: for genetic testing services

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