Reinforcing iron and rebar workers held about 19,500 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of reinforcing iron and rebar workers were as follows:
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||59%|
|Nonresidential building construction||6|
|Heavy and civil engineering construction||5|
|Other specialty trade contractors||2|
Structural iron and steel workers held about 69,000 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of structural iron and steel workers were as follows:
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||48%|
|Nonresidential building construction||19|
|Heavy and civil engineering construction||7|
|Building equipment contractors||5|
Ironworkers usually work outside in many types of weather. Some work at great heights. Their tasks are physically demanding, as they spend much of their time moving and stooping to carry, bend, cut, and connect iron or steel at a steady pace so projects stay on schedule.
Injuries and Illnesses
The work of ironworkers can be dangerous. Common injuries include cuts, sprains, overexertion, and falls; from great heights, falls can be deadly. To reduce these risks, ironworkers must wear safety equipment such as harnesses, hard hats, boots, gloves, and safety glasses.
Most ironworkers work full time. They may have to travel to jobsites.
Structural ironworkers who work at great heights do not work when conditions are wet, icy, or extremely windy. Reinforcing ironworkers may be limited by precipitation.
Most ironworkers learn through an apprenticeship or on-the-job training.
A high school diploma or equivalent is generally required to enter an apprenticeship. Workers learning through on-the-job training may not need a high school diploma or equivalent. Courses in math, as well as training in vocational subjects such as blueprint reading and welding, are useful.
Many ironworkers learn their trade through a 3- or 4-year apprenticeship. Sponsors of apprenticeship programs, nearly all of which teach both reinforcing and structural ironworking, include unions and contractor associations. For each year of the program, apprentices must have at least 144 hours of related technical instruction and 2,000 hours of paid on-the-job training. Ironworkers who complete an apprenticeship program are considered journey-level workers and may perform tasks without direct supervision.
Other ironworkers receive on-the-job training that varies in length and is provided by their employer.
On the job, apprentices and trainees learn to use the tools and equipment of the trade; handle, measure, cut, and lay rebar; and construct metal frameworks. They also learn about topics such as blueprint reading and sketching, general construction techniques, safety practices, and first aid.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Certifications in welding, rigging, and crane signaling may make ironworkers more attractive to prospective employers. Several organizations provide certifications for different aspects of the work. For example, the American Welding Society offers welding certification, and several organizations offer rigging certifications, including the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators, and the National Center for Construction Education and Research.
After gaining experience, ironworkers may advance to become a supervisor or a manager, a position in which they have more responsibilities and are tasked with directing other ironworkers.
Structural iron and steel workers typically have an interest in the Building, Thinking and Organizing interest areas, according to the Holland Code framework. The Building interest area indicates a focus on working with tools and machines, and making or fixing practical things. The Thinking interest area indicates a focus on researching, investigating, and increasing the understanding of natural laws. The Organizing interest area indicates a focus on working with information and processes to keep things arranged in orderly systems.
If you are not sure whether you have a Building or Thinking or Organizing interest which might fit with a career as a structural iron and steel worker, you can take a career test to measure your interests.
Structural iron and steel workers should also possess the following specific qualities:
Balance. Because workers often walk on narrow beams, a good sense of balance is important to keep them from falling while doing their job.
Depth perception. Ironworkers must be able to envision the distance between objects and themselves to work safely. Ironworkers that misjudge the distance between girders, for example, may cause the girders to collide, which can be dangerous and costly.
Physical stamina. Ironworkers must have physical endurance because they spend many hours on their feet while connecting heavy and cumbersome beams.
Physical strength. Ironworkers must be strong enough to guide heavy beams into place and tighten bolts.
Unafraid of heights. Some ironworkers must not be afraid to work at great heights. For example, as they erect skyscrapers, workers must walk on narrow beams—sometimes over 50 stories high—while connecting girders.
The median annual wage for reinforcing iron and rebar workers was $48,830 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,930, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $97,630.
The median annual wage for structural iron and steel workers was $58,550 in May 2021. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,610, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $98,000.
In May 2021, the median annual wages for reinforcing iron and rebar workers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
|Other specialty trade contractors||$74,330|
|Heavy and civil engineering construction||73,590|
|Nonresidential building construction||49,780|
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||48,670|
In May 2021, the median annual wages for structural iron and steel workers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
|Building equipment contractors||$61,910|
|Heavy and civil engineering construction||61,680|
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||59,560|
|Nonresidential building construction||50,700|
The starting pay for apprentices is usually about 50 percent of what journey-level ironworkers make. They receive pay increases as they learn to do more.
Most ironworkers work full time. Structural ironworkers who work at great heights do not work when conditions are wet, icy, or extremely windy. Reinforcing ironworkers may be limited by precipitation.
Overall employment of ironworkers is projected to grow 4 percent from 2021 to 2031, about as fast as the average for all occupations.
About 9,400 openings for ironworkers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
Steel and reinforced concrete are important parts of commercial and industrial buildings. Future construction of these structures is expected to require ironworkers. The need to fix, maintain, or replace an increasing number of older highways and bridges also is expected to lead to some employment growth.
For information about apprenticeships or job opportunities as an ironworker, contact local structural and reinforcing iron and steel construction contractors, a local joint union–management apprenticeship committee, or the nearest office of your state employment service or apprenticeship agency. Apprenticeship information is available from the U.S. Department of Labor's Apprenticeship program online or by phone at 877-872-5627. Visit Apprenticeship.gov to search for apprenticeship opportunities.
For ironworker and apprenticeship information, visit
For more information about ironworkers, visit
For more information about certification, visit