Insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall held about 33,700 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall were as follows:
|Drywall and insulation contractors||62%|
|Building equipment contractors||13|
|Nonresidential building construction||2|
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||1|
Insulation workers, mechanical held about 31,200 jobs in 2021. The largest employers of insulation workers, mechanical were as follows:
|Building equipment contractors||61%|
|Drywall and insulation contractors||18|
|Other specialty trade contractors||0|
Insulators generally work indoors. Mechanical insulators work both indoors and outdoors, sometimes in extreme temperatures. They spend most of their workday standing, bending, or kneeling in confined spaces. Insulators may work at great heights on scaffolding, work platforms, or ladders.
Injuries and Illnesses
Common hazards for insulation workers include falls from ladders and cuts from knives. In addition, small particles from insulation materials can irritate the eyes, skin, and lungs. To protect themselves, insulators must keep the work area well-ventilated and follow product and employer safety recommendations. They also may wear personal protective equipment (PPE), including suits, masks, and respirators, to protect against hazardous fumes or materials.
Mechanical insulators may get burns from insulating pipes that are in service.
Most insulators work full time, and more than 40 hours a week may be required to meet construction deadlines. Those who insulate outdoors may not be able to work in bad weather, such as during a storm or in extreme heat or cold.
Most floor, ceiling, and wall insulators learn their trade on the job. Many mechanical insulators complete an apprenticeship program after earning a high school diploma or equivalent.
There are no specific education requirements for floor, ceiling, and wall insulators. Apprenticeships for mechanical insulators typically require a high school diploma or equivalent. High school courses in subjects such as math, mechanical drawing, and science are helpful for all types of insulators.
Most floor, ceiling, and wall insulators learn their trade on the job. New workers learn about installation and get mandatory Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) safety training on insulation handling and asbestos abatement. Beginning insulators work alongside more experienced ones to learn how to use equipment for installing spray insulation.
Many mechanical insulators learn their trade through a 4- to 5-year apprenticeship, which includes both technical instruction and paid on-the-job training.
Unions and individual contractors offer apprenticeships. Although most insulators start out by entering apprenticeships directly, others begin by working as helpers. The International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers, an affiliate of the North American Building Trades Union, provides contact information on local union chapters.
Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations
Insulation workers who remove and handle asbestos must be trained through programs accredited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Some states require a license for asbestos abatement. Check with your state for more information. Mechanical insulators who complete an apprenticeship through the International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers may receive this license as part of their apprenticeship.
The National Insulation Association offers a certification for mechanical insulators who conduct energy appraisals to determine if and how insulation can benefit industrial customers. Mechanical insulators also may receive certification in other job duties, such as fire stopping
After completing an apprenticeship, mechanical insulators reach journey-level status. After becoming journey workers, mechanical insulators may advance to supervisor or superintendent positions, or they may choose to start their own business offering mechanical insulation services.
Insulators typically have an interest in the Building interest area, according to the Holland Code framework. The Building interest area indicates a focus on working with tools and machines, and making or fixing practical things.
If you are not sure whether you have a Building interest which might fit with a career as an insulator, you can take a career test to measure your interests.
Insulators should also possess the following specific qualities:
Dexterity. Insulation workers must be able to work in confined spaces while maintaining coordination and control of tools and materials. Also, insulators often must reach above their heads to fit and fasten insulation into place.
Mechanical skills. Insulation workers use a variety of hand and power tools to install insulation. Those who apply foam insulation, for example, must be able to operate a compressor and sprayer to spread the foam onto walls or across attics.
Physical stamina. Because insulators spend most of the day standing, stretching, and bending, workers should be able to stay physically active without getting tired.
The median annual wage for insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall was $39,880 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,120, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $66,210.
The median annual wage for insulation workers, mechanical was $48,260 in May 2021. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,970, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $92,010.
In May 2021, the median annual wages for insulation workers, floor, ceiling, and wall in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
|Nonresidential building construction||$57,840|
|Building equipment contractors||46,210|
|Drywall and insulation contractors||38,330|
|Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors||37,700|
In May 2021, the median annual wages for insulation workers, mechanical in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:
|Building equipment contractors||$48,370|
|Other specialty trade contractors||48,070|
|Drywall and insulation contractors||47,600|
The starting pay for apprentices is less than that of a fully trained insulator. Apprentices earn more pay as they acquire skills.
Most insulators work full time, and they sometimes need to work more than 40 hours a week to meet construction deadlines. Those who insulate outdoors may not be able to work in bad weather, such as during a storm or in extreme heat or cold.
Overall employment of insulation workers is projected to grow 3 percent from 2021 to 2031, slower than the average for all occupations.
Despite limited employment growth, about 6,000 openings for insulation workers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Most of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
The continuing need to make new and existing buildings and systems more energy efficient will drive the demand for mechanical insulation workers.
The amount of new home building and retrofitting of existing insulation will continue to be linked to the employment of floor, ceiling, and wall insulation workers over the projections decade.
For details about apprenticeships or other opportunities for insulators, contact the offices of the state employment service, the state apprenticeship agency, local insulation contractors, or firms that employ insulators. Apprenticeship information is available from the U.S. Department of Labor’s Apprenticeship program online or by phone at 877-872-5627. Visit Apprenticeship.gov to search for apprenticeship opportunities.
For more information about apprenticeship or training for insulators, visit
National Insulation Association
International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers
North American Building Trades Union
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency