Gambling services workers serve customers in gambling establishments, such as casinos or racetracks. Some workers tend slot machines or deal cards. Others take bets or pay out winnings. Still others supervise or manage gambling workers and operations.


Gambling services workers typically do the following:

  • Interact with customers and make sure that they have a pleasant experience
  • Monitor customers for violations of gambling rules or the establishment’s policies
  • Inform their supervisor or a security employee of any irregularities they see
  • Enforce safety rules and report hazards
  • Explain to customers how to play the games

The following are examples of types of gambling services workers:

First-line supervisors of gambling services workers directly monitor and coordinate the activities of workers in assigned gambling areas. They move within their assigned areas make sure that everything is running smoothly and that all areas are properly staffed. Table games supervisors (also called floor supervisors) oversee gambling dealers, table games, and players. Slot supervisors oversee activities of the slot department.

Gambling and sports book writers and runners handle bets on sporting events and take and record bets for customers. In addition, they help run games such as bingo and keno. They verify tickets and pay out winning tickets, and some runners collect winning tickets from customers.

Gambling dealers operate table games such as blackjack, craps, and roulette. They control the pace and action of the game, announcing each player’s move to the rest of the table and letting players know when it is their turn. They inspect cards or dice, pay off winning bets, and collect on winning bets. Dealers are often required to work at least two games, usually blackjack or craps.

Gambling managers, who also may be casino managers, plan, coordinate, or direct operations in a gambling establishment. They may create house rules, such as for betting limits, and address customer complaints about service. Gambling managers also hire and train new employees.

For information on gambling cage workers, see the profile on financial clerks. For information on gambling surveillance officers and gambling investigators, see the profile on security guards and gambling surveillance officers.

Work Environment

Gambling services workers held about 118,700 jobs in 2021. Employment in the detailed occupations that make up gambling services workers was distributed as follows:

Gambling dealers 68,500
First-line supervisors of gambling services workers                      26,400
Gambling service workers, all other 11,600
Gambling and sports book writers and runners 8,000
Gambling managers 4,100

The largest employers of gambling services workers were as follows:

Local government, excluding education and hospitals                  27%
Self-employed workers 8
Spectator sports 2

Gambling dealers spend most of their shift standing or sitting behind a table. Although managers and supervisors may spend limited time working in an office, they frequently monitor activities by circulating among areas on the floor of the establishment.

Casinos in some states are exempt from laws prohibiting smoking indoors. The atmosphere in these facilities may expose gambling services workers to hazards such as secondhand smoke from cigarettes, cigars, or pipes.

Noise from slot machines, gambling tables, and loud customers may be distracting, although workers may wear protective headgear in areas where machinery is used to count money.

Work Schedules

Most casinos are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Employees are often scheduled to work nights, weekends, and holidays, which are typically the busiest times for casinos. Most work full time, although part-time work is common.

Education and Training

Gambling jobs typically require a high school diploma or equivalent to enter. Some employers require gambling managers to have a college degree.


Gambling dealers, gambling supervisors, and gambling and sports book writers and runners typically need a high school diploma or equivalent. Educational requirements for gambling managers differ by establishment. Some require a high school diploma or equivalent, while others require gambling managers to have some college or a degree. Those who pursue a degree may choose to study casino management, hotel management, or hospitality, in addition to taking courses in business.


Individual casinos or other gambling establishments have their own training requirements. New gambling dealers may be sent to gambling school for a few weeks to learn a table game, such as blackjack or craps. These schools teach the game’s rules and procedures, as well as state and local laws and regulations related to it.

Although gambling school is primarily for new employees, some experienced dealers go to gambling school if they want to be trained in a new game.

Completing gambling school before being hired may increase a prospective dealer’s chances of being hired, but it does not guarantee a job. Employers usually audition prospective dealers for open positions to assess their personal qualities.

Gambling and sports book writers and runners usually do not have to go to gambling school. They typically are trained in less than 1 month. The employer provides instruction on state and local laws and regulations related to the game, as well the particulars of their job, such as keno calling.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations

Gambling services workers must be licensed by a state regulatory agency, such as a state casino control board or gambling commission. Licensing requirements for supervisory or managerial positions may differ from those for gambling dealers, gambling and sports book writers and runners, and all other gambling workers. However, all candidates for a license must provide photo identification and pay a fee. Typically, they also must pass an extensive background check and drug test. Failure to pass the background check may prevent candidates from getting a job or a gambling license.

Age requirements also vary by state. For specific licensing requirements, visit the state’s gambling commission website.

Work Experience in a Related Occupation

Gambling supervisors and gambling managers usually have several years of experience working in a casino or other gambling establishment. Gambling managers often have experience as a dealer or in the customer outreach department. Slot supervisors and table games supervisors usually have experience working in the activities of their respective areas. Some also have worked in entry-level marketing or customer-service positions.


Often, gambling managers are promoted from positions as slot supervisors or table games supervisors. They also may be moved from a management job in another part of the establishment, such as hospitality, after learning about the establishment’s operations through an internship or on-the-job training.

Gambling dealers may advance to become gambling supervisors and, eventually, managers. A slot supervisor or table games supervisor may also advance to become a gambling manager.

Personality and Interests

Gaming services workers typically have an interest in the Building, Persuading and Organizing interest areas, according to the Holland Code framework. The Building interest area indicates a focus on working with tools and machines, and making or fixing practical things. The Persuading interest area indicates a focus on influencing, motivating, and selling to other people. The Organizing interest area indicates a focus on working with information and processes to keep things arranged in orderly systems.

If you are not sure whether you have a Building or Persuading or Organizing interest which might fit with a career as a gaming services worker, you can take a career test to measure your interests.

Gaming services workers should also possess the following specific qualities:

Communication skills. Gaming services workers must be able to explain the rules of the game to customers and answer any questions they have. Simple misunderstandings can cost a customer a lot of money and damage the reputation of the casino.

Customer-service skills. All gaming jobs involve a lot of interaction with customers. The success or failure of a casino depends on how customers view the casino, making customer service important for all gaming services occupations.

Leadership skills. Gaming managers and supervisors oversee other gaming services workers and must be able to guide them in doing their jobs and developing their skills.

Math skills. Because they deal with large amounts of money, many casino workers must be good at math.

Organizational skills. Gaming managers and supervisors must be well organized to handle administrative and other tasks required in overseeing gaming services workers.

Patience. All gaming services workers have to be able to keep their composure when they handle a customer who becomes upset or breaks a rule. They must also be patient in dealing with equipment failure of malfunction.


The median annual wage for gambling services workers was $29,120 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,030, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $61,040.

Median annual wages for gambling services workers in May 2021 were as follows:

Gambling managers $76,910
First-line supervisors of gambling services workers                         49,140
Gambling service workers, all other 28,990
Gambling and sports book writers and runners 27,530
Gambling dealers 24,960

In May 2021, the median annual wages for gambling services workers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows:

Local government, excluding education and hospitals                      $30,000
Spectator sports 27,210

Most casinos are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Employees are often scheduled to work nights, weekends, and holidays, which are typically the busiest times for casinos. Most work full time, although part-time work is common.

Job Outlook

Overall employment of gambling services workers is projected to grow 17 percent from 2021 to 2031, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 22,200 openings for gambling services workers are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire. 


Projected employment of gambling services workers varies by occupation (see table).

Most of these occupations are projected to have rapid employment growth over the projections decade. However, because many of these occupations are small, the fast growth is expected to result in a limited number of new jobs over the decade.

Some of the projected growth in these occupations is due to recovery from the COVID-19 recession of 2020. Employment growth also is expected to be driven by the increasing popularity of gambling establishments. Additional states currently without commercial gambling establishments may allow new casinos to be built over the next decade in an effort to bring in more tax revenue.

The growth of online gambling may limit employment for some of these workers, including gambling and sports book writers and runners. Although some online gambling is linked to physical locations, online-only gambling sites do not require the same mix of employees.

Also, as more states approve expansions in the number of physical and online gambling establishments, the competition for customers will increase. Establishments that fail to keep or attract customers may close, thereby negating some of the jobs created.

For More Information

For more information about gambling services workers, visit

American Gaming Association

Casino Careers




Where does this information come from?

The career information above is taken from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook. This excellent resource for occupational data is published by the U.S. Department of Labor every two years. Truity periodically updates our site with information from the BLS database.

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